By Elizabeth Welsh (ed.)
Sedation and anaesthesia are a very important a part of veterinary perform. The protocols and strategies concerned are frequently complicated and differ significantly from animal to animal. The veterinary nurse has a pivotal function in anaesthesia, being at once concerned prior to, in the course of and after the anaesthetic interval.
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Extra info for Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses
Hypercalcaemia, hypoadrenocorticism. 3 Causes of raised urea in the dog and cat. Cause Additional useful tests Dehydration Physical examination and history PCV Total protein concentration Urine SG Electrolytes Cardiac disease Physical examination and history Recent high-protein meal History Intestinal haemorrhage History Diagnostic imaging Haematology proﬁle (to identify an iron deﬁciency anaemia secondary to chronic blood loss) Faecal occult blood test (patient must be on a meat-free diet) Postrenal obstruction History and physical examination Preoperative management The aim of management is to avoid reduced renal perfusion that can precipitate clinical disease in patients with subclinical disease and cause deterioration in patients with recognised disease: • • • • Maintain ﬂuid balance.
8) Main complaint and history. Cardiovascular history • Exercise tolerance: one of the most useful indicators of cardiac ‘ﬁtness’. It is advisable to investigate reported exercise intolerance before surgery, and stabilise any identiﬁable cardiopulmonary disease. Coughing? • • Difﬁculty breathing? Preoperative Assessment and Preparation of the Patient 37 Gastrointestinal history • Persistent, recurrent or recent vomiting? • Persistent, recurrent or recent diarrhoea? • Altered water intake? Investigation of polydipsia and polyuria (PUPD) should be considered before surgery since many of the causes of PUPD would also be associated with increased anaesthetic risk, for example, renal disease, feline hyperthyroidism.
Conﬁrm with owner, and record, the location of lesions for investigation or removal. General history • Behavioural changes? • Signs of pain? g. animals with bilateral pleural effusions often sleep upright. ‘Red alert’ answers or evasions In many patients with systemic disease the owner has identiﬁed signiﬁcant changes (for example, in appetite or exercise tolerance) but may have failed to recognise the signiﬁcance of these changes, or perhaps attributed them to the ageing process. Careful physical examination is particularly important in geriatric patients and where the owner has reported exercise intolerance, coughing and polydipsia.
Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses by Elizabeth Welsh (ed.)