By Graham D. Rowles
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Extra info for Aging and Milieu. Environmental Perspectives on Growing Old
Such dimensions are often asserted to be objective properties of activities. In effect, this assertion was made implicitly by Gordon et al (1976) when they, as researchers, assigned every objective activity to a category falling on their expressive involvement continuum. This assertion is false, since people differ among 48 M. Powell Lawton themselves in whether they experience a particular activity, for example, drinking, as relaxation, diversion, social participation, or even creativity. Thus, every property of an activity that fails the test of objectivity (can be counted or measured in centimeters/grams/seconds, or is characterized the same way by 100% of observers) belongs somewhere in the realm of a cognition by an individual, that is, a subjective activity.
The Gerontologist, 1969, 9, 214-218. Β instock, R , & Shanas, E. ). The handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976. Β irren, J. Ε. ). Handbook of aging and the individual Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1 9 5 9 . Brotman, Η. B. Every ninth American. Developments in aging. Washington, D. C : U. S. Senate, 1 9 8 0 . 28 Roger Lohmann and Nancy Lohmann Burgess, E. W. ). Aging in western societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. Butler, R Why survive?
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. ISBN 0 - 1 2 - 5 9 9 9 5 0 - X 42 M. Powell Lawton exploration of such constructs as time perspective and the personal and cognitive future (Kastenbaum, 1966). However, my question is whether these subjective aspects of time are not better conceptualized in terms of events or activities whose meanings are transformed into personal terms by a variety of processes, only one of which is a subjective time metric. For example, the personal future, as operationalized by Kastenbaum requires the person to anticipate in fantasy an event with the self and/or others as actors (or, conceivably, some nonpersonal event) at some clock-time distance from the present.
Aging and Milieu. Environmental Perspectives on Growing Old by Graham D. Rowles