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By Fahad H. Al Jumah

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In his analysis of the grounded cultural model of US entrepreneurship, he provided a conception that had a markedly American description, which he had starkly contrasted with European mental entrepreneurship models and other metaphorically derived models of organizational behavior. Such studies are of importance to the present work, as I will need to generate hypotheses as to the nature of any differences I find in the business-related metaphors of the two languages. In other words, I needed to use the few existing studies as a partial guide as I attempted to interpret the differences as either superficial linguistic differences, culturally based but random differences, or reflections of a deeper conceptual ground, such as the linkage between business competition and war or sports.

In the realm of literature, the exceptional qualities of metaphors are thought to make them the most potent medium by which to 38 convey literary experience in a form that can be easily grasped by readers (Stambovsky, 1988). However, as is clear from the discussion in this chapter so far, the realm of metaphor is now commonly believed to extend far beyond the literary realm. Recent studies have even suggested the presence of metaphors embedded in ancient artifacts that will retrace much of our past (Ortman, 2000).

The cognitive view asserts that metaphor is a mode of cognition (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Furthermore, it recognizes the existence of metaphors beyond the traditional confines of linguistics. This perspective holds that metaphors are present in emotions, events and activities. Goodman (1976) states that symbol systems go beyond language, into music, performance and visual arts, and even in ordinary gestures. For instance, pictures can convey emotions and feelings; hence there can be a good case for pictorial or nonverbal metaphors.

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A Comparative Study of Metaphor in Arabic and English: General Business Writing With Teaching Implications by Fahad H. Al Jumah


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